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It s a sunny afternoon on campus, and Jenny is walking to her next class. Out of the corner of her eye, she catches sight of her lab partner, Joey, parking his car. She stops to admire how tall, muscular, and stylishly dressed he is, and she does not take her eyes off him as he walks away from his shiny new BMW. As he flashes her a pearly white smile, Jenny melts, then quickly adjusts her skirt and smooths her hair. This scenario, while generalized, is familiar: Our attraction to people or lack of it often depends on their physical traits.
But why this Modern Dating Prehistoric Style Carolyn Stonehill Why does Jenny respond the way she does to her handsome lab partner? Why does she deem him handsome at all? Certainly Joey embodies the stereotypes of physical attractiveness prevalent in contemporary American society. Advertisements, television shows, and magazine articles all provide Jenny with signals telling her what constitutes the ideal American man. Yet she is also attracted to Joey s new sports car even though she has a new car herself.
Does Jenny find this man striking because of the influence of her culture, or does her attraction lie in a more fundamental part of her constitution? Evolutionary psychologists, who apply principles of evolutionary biology to research click at this page the human mind, would say that Jenny s responses in this situation are due largely to mating strategies developed by her prehistoric ancestors.
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Driven by the need to reproduce and propagate the species, these ancestors of ours formed patterns of mate selection so effective in providing for their needs and those of their offspring that they are mimicked even in today s society. While cultural values and messages clearly play a part in the process of mate selection, the genetic and psychological predispositions developed by our ancestors play the biggest role in determining to whom we are attracted.
Trivers has observed that having and rearing children requires women to invest far more resources than men do because of the length of pregnancy, Introduction uses narration and description to give an example of modern dating Raises a key question about cause and effect defines the field of evolutionary psychology, which may be unfamiliar to audience States the main point, or thesis, of paper Anticipates views of potential opponents.
According to Helen Fisher, one of the leading advocates of this theory, finding a capable mate was a huge preoccupation of all prehistoric reproductive women, and for good reason: A female couldn t carry a baby in one arm and sticks and stones in the other arm and still feed and protect herself on the very dangerous open grasslands, so she began to need a mate to help her rear her young Frank So because of this it became advantageous for the woman check this out find a strong, capable man with access to resources, and it became suitable for the man to find a healthy, reproductively sound woman to bear and care for his offspring.
According to evolutionary psychologists, these are the bases upon which modern mate selection is founded, and there are many examples of this phenomenon to be found in our own society. In our society, men with good job prospects, respected social positions, friends in high places, or any combination thereof have generally been viewed as more desirable mates than Modern Dating Prehistoric Style Carolyn Stonehill without these things because they signal to women that the men have resources Buss and Schmitt Compared with males, females invest more energy in bearing and raising children, so it is most advantageous for females to choose mates with easy access to resources, the better to provide for their children.
Men s Need to Find a Healthy Mate For men, reproductive success depends mainly on the reproductive fitness of their female counterparts: No amount of available resources can save a baby miscarried in the first month of gestation.
Because of this need for a healthy mate, men have evolved a particular attraction radar that focuses on signs of a woman s health and youth, markers that are primarily visual Weiten Present-day attractiveness ratings are based significantly on this primitive standard: Some researchers have suggested that cross-cultural standards of beauty reflect an evolved preference for physical traits that are generally associated with youth, such as summarizes and quotes the views of other writers whose ideas Stonehill plans to build on synthesizes the views of other writers as a basis for own claim Returns to Modern Dating Prehistoric Style Carolyn Stonehill narrative and reads it in the light of ideas in evolutionary psychology that support her position summary statement about origins of female behavior leads to comparison with male behavior in next section.
This observation would explain why women of our time are preoccupied with plastic surgery, makeup, and in Jenny s case a quick hair check as a potential date approaches.
The Influence of the Media on Mate Selection There is, however, a good deal of opposition to evolutionary theory. Some critics say that the messages fed to us by the media are a larger influence on the criteria of present-day mate selection than any sort of ancestral behavior. Advertisements and popular media have long shown Americans what constitutes a physically ideal mate: In general, youthful, well-toned, symmetrical features are considered more attractive than aging, flabby, or lopsided ones.
Evolutionary psychologists argue that research has not determined what is cause and what is effect. Leda Modern Dating Prehistoric Style Carolyn Stonehill and John Tooby offered the following analogy to show the danger of assigning culture too powerful a causal role: For example, people think that if they can show that there is information in the culture that mirrors how people behave, then that is the cause of their behavior.
So if they see that men on TV have trouble crying, they assume that their example is causing boys to be afraid to cry. But which is cause and which effect? Does the fact Modern Dating Prehistoric Style Carolyn Stonehill men don t cry much on TV teach boys to not cry, or does it merely reflect the way boys normally develop? In the absence of research on the particular topic, there is no way of knowing.
An Adaptationist Perspective, par. Advertisers rely on classical conditioning to interest consumers in their products. For instance, by showing an image of a beautiful woman while advertising a beauty product, advertisers hope that consumers will associate attractiveness with the use of that particular product Weiten In order for this method to be effective, however, the images depicted in conjunction with the beauty product must be ones the general public already finds attractive, and an image of a youthful, clear-skinned woman would, according to evolutionary psychologists, be attractive for reasons of reproductive fitness.
In short, what some call media influence is not an influence at all but merely a mirror in which we see evidence of our ancestral predispositions. If Not Media, Then What? Ian Tattersall, a paleoanthropologist at the American Museum of Natural History, offered another counterargument to the evolutionary theory of mate selection. First, he argued that the behavior of organisms is influenced not only by genetics, but also by economics and ecology working together Second, he argued that no comparisons can be made between modern human behavior and that of our evolutionary predecessors because the appearance of Homo sapiens presented a sudden, qualitative change from the Neanderthals not a gradual evolution of behavioral traits: As a cognitive and behavioral entity, our species is truly unprecedented.
Our consciousness is an emergent quality, not the result of eons of fine-tuning of a single instrument. And, if so, it is to this recently acquired quality click at this page uniqueness, not to the hypothetical ancestral environments, that we must look in the effort to understand our often unfathomable behaviors.
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Our sexual preferences, summarizes position in response to opposing views of mate selection Anticipates another possible argument Focuses on the key assumption of the other argument. Opponents of the evolutionary theory, though, fail to explain how unfathomable mating behaviors can exist in our present society for no apparent or logical reason. Though medicine has advanced to the point where fertility can be medically enhanced, Devendra Singh observed that curvy women are still viewed as especially attractive because they are perceived to possess greater fertility a perception that is borne out Modern Dating Prehistoric Style Carolyn Stonehill several studies of female fertility, hormone levels, and waist-to-hip ratio Though more and more women are attending college and achieving high-paying positions, women are still more likely than men to consider economic prospects a high priority in a mate Sapolsky While cultural norms and economic conditions influence our taste in mates, as Singh showed in observing that the check this out of affluence of a society or of an ethnic group within a society may, to a large extent, determine the prevalence and admiration of fatness [of women]we still react to potential mates in ways determined in Paleolithic times.
The key to understanding our mating behavior does not lie only in an emergent modern quality, nor does it lie solely in the messages relayed to us by society; rather, it involves as well the complex mating strategies developed by our ancestors. Attacks that assumption as unfounded and draws support from additional sources Conclusion acknowledges the validity of opposing views but stipulates that argument is also valid Works Cited Boyd, Robert, and Joan B.
An Evolutionary Perspective on Human Mating.
Stone Age Art History from Goodbye-Art Academy
Cosmides, Leda, and John Tooby. Center for Evolutionary Psychology. University of California, Santa Barbara, Web. Druen, and Cheng-Huan Wu. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Helen Fisher Unravels the Mystery.
What Do Females Want? Adaptive Significance of Female Physical Attractiveness: Role of Waist-to-Hip Ratio.
Role Drugs Prehistory 70, middle period ibero-maurusian industry north african stone-tool late. Common Sense vs Evolution A frank essay showing some pitfalls of evolution using common sense. First, remember that Evolution is a two-stage process:
Journal of Personality and Social Behavior Evolution, Genes, and Behavior. Parental Investment and Sexual Selection. Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man: Reprinted by permission of the author. It s in Our Genes: Humans are primarily monogamous c. Humans are always sexually receptive d.
Human females have permanently swollen breasts; other primates. Wiederman 1 Sexual Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs Most people are too focused on sexual activity they think it is more important than it really is. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Chapter 3 1 Chapter in Review 1. Heredity is the tendency of offspring to resemble their parents in various ways. Genes are units of heredity. continue reading
They are functional strands of DNA grouped. The objective of this study is Modern Dating Prehistoric Style Carolyn Stonehill determine whether or not a relationship exists between eating disordered attitudes, specifically anorexia nervosa, and several factors, including attention from. Behavior Genetics and Evolutionary Psychology Source of similarities and differences Similarities with other people such as developing a languag, showing check this out emotions, following similar.
The Case of the Missing Control. Identify the central themes of biology. Explain how life can be studied at different levels. Discuss the importance of a universal. Participants define gender and discuss ways it influences their lives. Just Because --Stereotypes 2. In the nature-nurture debate, nurture refers to a.
It is certainly not true that there is in the mind of Man any universal standard of beauty with respect to the human body The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex p. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution. What is a Good Animal Model? Dario Maestripieri Criteria for assessing the validity of animal models of human behavioral research Face validity:.
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